ethofumesate (Ethotron SC)

Rate Preemergence: 0.5 to 1 lb ai/A (16 to 32 fl oz/A) depending on soil texture. Weed control diminishes in fine-texture soils and soils with high organic matter.

Time Apply after planting and activate with at least 1inch water.

Remarks Do not use smaller than 50 mesh screen, and avoid overlaps, which may increase risk of crop injury. No more than a total of 96 oz/A of Ethotron SC should be applied in a single growing season.

Caution May cause temporary leaf fusion, distortion, and stunting when used as label directs and under normal growing conditions. If crop is lost due to unfavorable growth conditions after application, do not plant anything except sugar beets, table beets, onions, garlic, shallots, or ryegrass.

Site of action Group 16: unknown

Chemical family Benzofuran

flumioxazin (Chateau, Tuscany, Warfox)

Rate 0.019 lb ai/A (6 oz/A Chateau WDG and SW)

Time Prior to garlic emergence.

Remarks Application should be made within 3 days of planting, and before weeds emerge.

Caution Toxic to aquatic invertebrates. Do not apply directly to water. Clean spray tank carefully before applying other herbicides. Maximum 6 oz/A per growing season.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitor

Chemical family Diphenylether

paraquat (Gramoxone; 2 lb paraquat cation/gal)

Rate 0.63 to 1 lb cation/A (2.5 to 4 pints/A); use higher rates for heavy weed infestation or wild oat control.

Time Apply just before crop emerges to emerged weeds only. Add a nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate as label specifies, taking care to avoid anionic formulations that react in the tank to form insoluble precipitates.

Remarks Acts on contact; absorbs energy produced by photosynthesis, forming peroxides that disrupt living cells.

Caution Paraquat is a restricted use pesticide due to acute toxicity. For retail sale to and use only by certified applicators - not to be used by uncertified persons working under the supervision of a certified applicator. Do not ingest or inhale spray mist. Applicators must wear long-sleeve shirt and long pants, shoes plus socks, protective eyewear, chemical-resistant gloves, and a NIOSH-approved particulate respirator or approved powered air-purifying respirator.

Site of action Group 22: photosystem 1 electron diversion

Chemical family Bipyridilium

pendimethalin (Prowl H2O and 3.3EC)

Rate 0.71 to 1.42 lb ai/A (1.5 to 3.0 pints/A Prowl H2O)

Time Apply either preemergence soon after planting, postemergence when garlic has one to five true leaves, or split the treatments but do not exceed 3.6 pints/A product per crop except for dodder control (see label).

Remarks Adjust rates for soil texture and organic matter. Existing weeds must be destroyed; rain or overhead irrigation must be within 7 days to activate. Inhibits mitosis in both shoots and roots.

Caution Do not feed or graze field residues. Preharvest interval is 45 days.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline