Chemical Renovation and Combination Products for Extended (6 months) Bare Ground (Edging)

Nonselective postemergence

glyphosate (many brand names)

Rate Most glyphosate products are 41% ai. For those products, when controlling annual weeds, use 12 to 36 fl oz/A. For perennial weeds: use 1.5 to 7.5 pints/A, or for hand-held applications, use 0.75% to 1.5% solutions. Refer to annual and perennial weed control tables on the glyphosate product to calculate amount of product and gallons of water to use for control of specific weeds.

Time Apply when target plants are actively growing.

Remarks Properly applied, glyphosate kills all common weedy grasses and many broadleaf weeds. Results on grasses are best if turf is allowed to grow at least 3 inches tall or to flower. For maximum kill, delay replanting to see whether regrowth is from crowns or rhizomes. Bermudagrass kill is better with summer or early fall sprays. Roundup PRO is for use in industrial (nonagricultural) markets. Roundup PROMAX has a new formulation of surfactants with a Category IV acute toxicity rating and "Caution" signal word. It contains 15% surfactant for faster activity and is rainfast in 1 to 2 hr. Effects on weedy grasses are visible in 2 to 4 days, but on most perennial weeds not for 7 days or more. Roundup PROMAX's active ingredient inhibits an enzyme essential for forming specific amino acids. Roundup ProDry is a water-soluble granule containing surfactant; no additional surfactant is needed or recommended.

Caution Avoid tilling or slice-seeding sprayed areas for at least 7 days to ensure adequate translocation to crowns, rhizomes, and roots. Use caution in spraying turf near ornamentals, which may be injured or killed by drift or direct spray contact. See label for site application for each product.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

glyphosate (Glypro Plus, Gly Star Original, Gly Star K-Plus, Gly Star Plus, Gly Star Pro Gly-4 Herbicide, gly-4 Plus Herbicide, Glyfos Herbicide, Glyfos Pro Herbicide, Glyfos X-Tra Herbicide, Glypho 41 Herbicide, Glyphogan Herbicide, Glysort)

Rate These products are all 41% ai. See tables on label for amount of product to use for specific weed control.

Time Apply when plants are actively growing for best results.

Remarks Suppresses perennial grasses (see label for specific grasses and rates) and can substitute for mowing. Also can suppress annual rye, wild barley rye, and wild oat in coarse turf on roadsides or in industrial areas. Use only if some damage or discoloration of perennial grasses can be tolerated. Glypro Plus controls most existing vegetation prior to renovating turfgrass or establishing turfgrass from seed or sod. If existing vegetation is being mowed, omit at least one regular mowing before application to allow sufficient growth to intercept the spray well.

Caution Avoid herbicide contact with foliage, green stems, exposed nonwoody roots or fruit of crops, and desirable plants and trees; severe injury or death may result. Do not treat weeds under poor growing conditions such as drought stress, disease or insect damage; weed control may be reduced. Herbicide activity may also be reduced if weeds are very dusty. Do not disturb soil for 7 days after application. Do not feed or graze turfgrass grown for seed or sod production for 8 weeks after applying.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl (Rage)

Rate Product contains 5 lb/gal glyphosate and 0.40 lb/gal carfentrazone. For spot treatments: use 0.75% to 8% (1 fl oz/gal to 10.25 fl oz/gal). For suppression of perennial grass growth: use 3 to 4 fl oz in 10 to 20 gal water/A for tall fescues, fine fescue, orchardgrass and quackgrass. Use 4 fl oz in 10 to 20 gal water/A for Kentucky bluegrass.

Time Weed control is best when product is applied to actively growing weeds up to 4 inches high, or to rosettes less than 3 inches across.

Remarks Rage is a broad spectrum, nonselective herbicide, providing contact and systemic herbicide effects. Rage herbicide's two modes of action help minimize herbicide-resistant weed populations. It is a liquid emulsion formulation (EW). Mix with water and a recommended adjuvant to control selective postemergence broadleaf and grass weeds on labeled crops. Rage is absorbed rapidly through plant foliage and is rainfast when spray solution dries. To avoid significant crop response, do not apply within 6 to 8 hr of either rain or irrigation. Within a few hours of application, foliage of susceptible weeds shows signs of desiccation. Plant necrosis and death occur several days after the application. Weeds hardened by droughty conditions are less susceptible. Can be used to trim and edge in many noncrop sites. Mow 3 to 4 days before spraying to even out the height of undesirable grasses. Growth suppression can be achieved on tall fescue, fine fescue, orchardgrass, quackgrass and Kentucky bluegrass.

Caution Product is only for use by individuals/firms certified and/or licensed as pesticide applicators. Large droplet size limits drift A nonionic surfactant, methylated seed oil, or crop oil concentrate is required for use. See label for specifics.

Site of action (glyphosate) Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase; (carfentrazone-ethyl) Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family (glyphosate) none generally accepted; (carfentrazone-ethyl) triazinone

Nonselective postemergence and preemergence

indaziflam (Specticle Total)

Rate 16 fl oz/1 gal water/1,000 sq ft per application, do not exceed 32 fl oz/1,000 sq ft per year

Time Best results will be achieved when temperatures are above 60°F. Under drought conditions, it may be necessary to lightly water the product in. Irrigate to move the residual herbicide into the soil, but not to the point of visible runoff. or watering 30 minutes after application will not wash away effectiveness.

Remarks Do not use this product in or around vegetable gardens or in landscaped areas where young plants including ornamental bedding plants (annuals and/or perennials), trees, shrubs, and sod will soon be planted within 6 months after treatment. Seed may be planted 12 months after application. Do not use on desirable turfgrass, over-the-top of ornamental, or around the root zone of herbaceous plants.

Caution Do not allow people or pets to enter the treated area until sprays have dried.

Site of action Group 29: Inhibition of cellulose biosynthesis

Chemical family Alkylazine

glyphosate + prodiamine (ProDeuce)

Rate 3 to 5.75 fl oz/1 gal water/1,000 sq ft

Time Apply to established weeds and weed-prone areas before weeds emerge; for example, treat cracks and crevices in driveways, fence lines, foundations, curbs, retaining walls, or lawn edges. Glyphosate enters through foliage and moves systemically to roots, killing weeds by stopping production of a substance found in plants. Weeds begin to yellow and wilt in a matter of days; kill is complete in 1 to 2 weeks. Prodiamine provides an invisible barrier in soil by preventing growth and development of newly germinated weeds. Spray when air is calm to prevent drift to desirable plants. For best results, apply during warm, sunny weather (above 60°F).

Remarks All plants, trees, shrubs, sod and seed may be planted 6 months after application when applying at the 3 oz/1,000 sq ft rate.

Caution Stay off treated areas until sprays are dry. Take care to prevent tracking product onto desirable grasses. Do not spray desirable plants. Do not use in lawns for lawn renovations, because product will prevent desirable grass establishment for up to 6 months. Do not apply with a galvanized or unlined steel (except stainless steel) sprayer, or through any irrigation system.

Site of action (glyphosate) Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase; (prodiamine) Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family (glyphosate) none generally accepted; (prodiamine) dinitroaniline

pelargonic acid (Scythe)

Rate Annual weeds, moss and young plants within other green plants: 3% to 5% (4 fl oz to 6.66 fl oz/gal water). Burn down of perennial herbaceous plants and sucker control: 5% to 7% (6.3 fl oz to 9.33 fl oz/1 gal water). Maximum burn down, edging or foliar trimming: 7% to 10% (9.33 fl oz to 13 fl oz/1 gal water).

Time For best results, apply when plants are actively growing and day is sunny and warm.

Remarks A nonvolatile, contact, nonselective, broad-spectrum, foliar-applied emulsifiable concentrate (EC). It is nonsystemic with no soil residual and will not move through soil. Controls annual broadleaf and grass weeds less than 6 inches tall. Suppresses biennial and perennial weeds by destroying green foliage. Effects are visible within hours. Does not damage woody plant parts. Can be used to spot-weed or edge turf and landscape areas. Spray to wet but not to the point of runoff. Cool or cloudy weather after treatment may slow activity and delay visible effects.

Caution Avoid spray contact with foliage of desirable turfgrasses, trees, shrubs, or other vegetation because damage may result.

Site of action Group 26: unknown

Chemical family Carboxylic acid

Selective preemergence and early postemergence

ethofumesate (Poa Constrictor Herbicide, Prograss Herbicide, Prograss SC Herbicide, Thrasher)

Rate For new seedings applied preemergence of weeds: 0.2 to 3 pints/A. Postemergence applications: 2.25 to 3 pints/A no later than the 4-leaf stage of the weed. Harder-to-control weeds must be treated by the 2-leaf stage of the plant. For established grasses: 2.25 to 3 pints/A both pre- and postemergence for perennial ryegrass and tall fescue.

Time Apply to grasses listed as tolerant on label before annual bluegrass reaches the 4-leaf stage.

Remarks Ethofumesate is available only as an emulsifiable concentrate (EC). It provides effective preemergence and early postemergence control of annual bluegrass in new seedings of perennial ryegrass. It is root absorbed; water it in after application.

Caution Ethofumesate inhibits germination of most desirable cool-season grasses other than perennial ryegrass. It is highly toxic to seedling fine fescues. Surface organic matter decreases its effectiveness. Remove thatch and other debris before applying.

Site of action Group 26: unknown

Chemical family Benzofuran