New Plantings

diquat (Reglone)

Nonbearing crop only

Rate 0.375 to 0.5 lb ai/a (1.5 to 2 pint/a of product)

Remarks Add a nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate according to label. Weeds 1 inch to 6 inches in height are the easiest to control.

Caution Use a shield or wrap plant when spraying around young trees or vines.

Action in plant Acts as contact; absorbs energy produced during photosynthesis and forms peroxides that disrupt living cells.

Site of action Group 22: photosystem I electron diversion

Chemical family Bipyridilium

fluazifop (Fusilade DX)

Rate 0.25 to 0.375 lb ai/a (16 to 24 fl oz/a Fusilade DX) Maximum rate per season: 1.125 lb ai/a (72 fl oz/a of product)

Time Apply to actively growing grasses, or within 7 days after irrigation, as a directed spray with 1% crop oil or 0.25% nonionic surfactant.

Remarks Identify grass weeds and adjust rates depending on susceptibility and stage of growth as label instructs. Results often are erratic on grasses stressed from lack of vigor, drought, high temperature, or low fertility. More mature grasses and quackgrass can be controlled but may require two applications. Annual bluegrass and all fine fescues resist treatment.

Caution Preharvest interval is 50 days for hardy kiwi; 1 year for fuzzy kiwi. Grazing is prohibited.

Action in plant Inhibits fatty acid production, cell membranes, and new growth.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors

Chemical family Aryloxyphenoxy propionate

isoxaben (Gallery 75DF and Trellis)

Nonbearing crop only

Rate 0.5 to 1.0 ai/a (0.66 to 1.33 lb/a product), depending on weed species

Time For preemergence control of certain broadleaf weeds, apply to weed-free soil surface.

Remarks Activate herbicide within 21 days, either using shallow cultivation or irrigation with at least 0.5 inch water.

Caution Preharvest interval is 1 year.

Action in plant Appears to disrupt root and hypocotyl development. Susceptible plants die before emerging.

Site of action Group 21: inhibits cell wall synthesis Site B

Chemical family Benzamide

trifluralin + isoxaben (Snapshot)

Nonbearing crop only

Rate 2.5 to 5 lb ai/a (100 to 200 lb/a Snapshot) depending on weed species

Time For preemergence control of certain broadleaf weeds and grass weeds, apply to weed-free soil surface.

Remarks Activate herbicide within 3 days, either using shallow cultivation or irrigation with at least 0.5 inch water.

Caution Preharvest interval is 1 year.

Action in plant (isoxaben) Appears to disrupt root and hypocotyl development. Susceptible plants die before emerging. (trifluralin) Inhibits mitosis in shoots and roots.

Site of action (isoxaben) Group 21: inhibits cell wall synthesis Site B; (trifluralin) Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family (isoxaben) benzamide; (trifluralin) dinitroaniline

napropamide (Devrinol DF-XT, Devrinol 2-XT)

Rate 4 lb ai/a (8 lb/a Devrinol DF-XT, 8 quarts/a Devrinol 2-XT)

Time Apply after transplanting to firm soil, before weeds germinate.

Remarks Water the day of treatment to wet the soil 2 to 4 inches deep, to reduce degradation by sun and to activate the herbicide. Where convenient, shallow mechanical incorporation appears to improve activity.

Caution Do not apply within 35 days of harvest.

Action in plant Inhibits root growth.

Site of action Group 15: inhibits very long chain fatty acid synthesis

Chemical family Acetamide

oryzalin (Surflan A.S. or Oryzalin 4 A.S.)

Rate 2 to 6 lb ai/a (2 to 6 quarts/a product)

Time Apply after transplanting to firm soil, before weeds germinate. Requires sprinkler irrigation, rain, or shallow cultivation (1 to 2 inches) to activate.

Remarks Rate depends on duration of weed control desired.

Caution Do not use on soils with more than 5% organic matter. Avoid exposing transplant roots to contact with treated soil.

Action in plant Inhibits mitosis, primarily in roots.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

pendimethalin (Satellite HydroCap)

Rate 3 to 4 lb ai/a (3.2 to 4.2 quarts/a Satellite HydroCap)

Time Apply after transplanting to firm soil, before weeds germinate.

Remarks Most effective if rain or irrigation incorporates herbicide into weed emergence zone.

Caution Contact with the kiwi plant by the spray mixture may cause injury.

Action in plant Inhibits mitosis, primarily in roots.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline