Established Plantings-Directed Applications in Kiwifruit Rows

acetic acid (Weed Pharm Weed and Grass Killer)

Rate 15 to 30 gal/a product (20% acetic acid)

Remarks Apply as a directed application to actively growing, small weeds. Application equipment must be hooded or shielded. Any contact with the crop will cause crop injury. Weed Pharm can be applied up to and including the day of harvest. Approved for organic production.

Caution This product is a contact, nonselective, herbicide. Avoid contact with desirable kiwi foliage, green bark, or fruit. Wear safety glasses.

carfentrazone (Aim EC)

Rate 0.031 lb ai/a (2 fl oz/a Aim)

Remarks Apply as a directed application to actively growing weeds not beyond the six-leaf stage. Allow at least 14 days between applications. Preharvest interval is 3 days.

Caution This product is a contact, nonselective, broadleaf herbicide. Avoid contact with desirable kiwi foliage or green bark.

Action in plant Disrupts cell membranes.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

glyphosate (several products)

Rate Spray: consult labels

Remarks Select application equipment to prevent crop injury by directing spray, or use selective applicators. Adjust concentration depending on equipment. See label for rate and application time, especially for perennial weeds. Adding surfactant or mixing ammonium sulfate according to label directions may improve control of slightly stressed weeds.

Caution Do not allow drift or mist to contact green foliage, green bark, suckers, or vines and renewals less than 3 years old. Preharvest interval is 14 days. If applications are repeated, check label for the maximum amount of glyphosate allowed per season.

Action in plant Causes ammonium ions to accumulate, disrupting photosynthesis.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

glyphosate (several products)

Rate Wiper: 33% solution

Time Mix 1 gal product to 2 gal water, and wipe weeds.

Remarks Avoid contact with desirable vegetation. In severe infestations, reduce equipment ground speed, or apply in two directions to ensure contact with wiper. (See remarks above).

Caution Do not contact green foliage, green bark, suckers, or vines and renewals less than 3 years old. Preharvest interval is 14 days. If applications are repeated, check label for the maximum amount of glyphosate allowed per season.

Action in plant Causes ammonium ions to accumulate, disrupting photosynthesis.

Site of action Group 9: inhibits EPSP synthase

Chemical family None generally accepted

oxyfluorfen (GoalTender or Galigan H2O)

Rate 0.5 to 1.5 lb ai/a (1 to 3 pints/a product)

Time Apply only to healthy vines.

Remarks Direct spray toward base of vines; avoid direct plant contact. Dormant application only; do not apply oxyfluorfen between bud swell and completion of final harvest. Oxyfluorfen can be applied upon completion of final harvest. Controls broadleaf weeds preemergence and postemergence, depending on application rate and weed species. For preemergence control of susceptible weeds, use 2.5 to 3 pints/a product on a weed-free soil surface. For postemergence control of susceptible weeds, use 1 to 3 pints/a product, depending on stage of growth.

Caution Do not apply to established plants less than 3 years old unless vines are trellised a minimum of 3-ft above soil. Do not exceed 1.5 lb ai/a (3 pints/a) per season.

Action in plant Acts as a contact-type herbicide, either directly on broadleaf weeds or at soil surface as weeds emerge.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family Diphenylether

paraquat (Gramoxone Inteon, others)

Rate 0.625 to 1.0 lb ai/a (Gramoxone Inteon: 2.5 to 4.0 pints/a; other brands: 1.7 to 2.7 pints/a)

Time Apply as a directed, shielded spray toward base of vines when weeds are growing vigorously and new weeds are 1 to 6 inches high.

Remarks Add a nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate according to label; avoid anionic formulations that react in the tank to form insoluble precipitates.

Caution A restricted-use pesticide. Do not ingest or inhale spray mist. Wear protective face shields, respirators, and clothing. Do not let spray contact green stem, fruit, or foliage. Avoid windy conditions. Do not treat more than three times per year. Preharvest interval is 14 days.

Action in plant Acts as contact; absorbs energy produced during photosynthesis and forms peroxides that disrupt living cells.

Site of action Group 22: photosystem I electron diversion

Chemical family Bipyridilium

pelargonic acid (Scythe)

Rate For annual weeds, a 3% to 5% solution; for perennial herbaceous weeds and sucker control, a 5% to 7% solution.

Remarks Apply in 75- to 200-gal/a water broadcast; agitation is required. Cool weather may slow the product's activity, and delay or reduce visible effects. This product is a contact, nonselective herbicide and controls only actively growing, emerged green vegetation.

Action in plant Control or burndown of a broad spectrum of weeds on contact.

Site of action Group 26: unknown

Chemical family Carboxylic acid

pyraflufen (Venue)

Rate 0.001 to 0.005 lb ai/a (1 to 4 oz/a Venue)

Remarks Apply as a directed application to actively growing broadleaved weeds less than 4 inches high, or rosettes less than 3 inches in diameter. Use lower rate for small weeds and higher rate for larger weeds. Do not exceed 6.8 fl oz/a or three applications per season. Allow at least 30 days between applications. Apply only at prebloom or postharvest, or during dormancy. Mixing this herbicide with another herbicide increases the weed spectrum and is highly recommended.

Caution This product is a contact, nonselective, broadleaf herbicide. Avoid contact with desirable kiwi foliage, green bark, or fruit. Do not exceed 6.8 oz/a Venue per season.

Action in plant Inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) that disrupts cell membranes.

Site of action Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family Phenylpyrazole