Wild Oat, Italian Ryegrass, and Other Grass Weeds

clodinafop-propargyl (several trade names)

Rate 0.05 to 0.063 lb ai/a. Methylated seed oil may be added with clodinafop at 2 pints/100 gal of spray volume mixture.

Time Apply to winter wheat from the 2-leaf to preboot stage. Do not apply to winter wheat in the fall. Apply to wild oat with one to six leaves on the main stem, and to Italian ryegrass with one to five leaves on the main stem.

Remarks Winter wheat is more susceptible to injury when temperatures 48 hours before or after application are below 40°F. See label for crop rotation restrictions.

Caution Apply only once per season. Do not graze or feed forage from treated areas for at least 30 days after application. Preharvest interval is 60 days. Do not apply to a crop stressed by conditions such as drought, frost, low fertility, or pest damage; crop may be injured.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Aryloxyphenoxypropionate

diuron (several trade names)

Rate 1.2 to 1.6 lb ai/a

Time Apply as soon as possible after planting. If wheat and weeds have emerged, apply before weeds are 3 to 4 inches tall.

Remarks Rain is required to activate chemical. Results are best if rain begins within 2 weeks of application. Winter wheat must be seeded more than 1.5 inches deep. Italian ryegrass has developed resistance to diuron in some fields in western Oregon. Diuron will control rattail fescue, susceptible annual bluegrass, and many broadleaf weeds but will not control wild oats.

Caution Crop may be injured if severe winter stress, disease, or insect damage follows application. Do not use on sand or loamy sand soils, on gravelly or sandy loams low in organic matter, or on thinly covered or exposed subsoil areas (clay knobs). Do not treat winter wheat planted less than 1 inch deep.

Site of action Group 7: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Substituted urea

diuron (several trade names) + chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron (several trade names)

Rate 0.8 to 1.2 lb ai/a diuron + 0.014 to 0.019 lb ai/a chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron

Time Apply pre- or post-emergence any time after winter wheat is in 2-leaf stage but before boot.

Remarks For best results, apply preemergence to Italian ryegrass. Do not use surfactants. This treatment is often ineffective on wild oat.

Caution See individual labels for crop rotation restrictions. Many crops may not be planted within 2 years or longer after application. Perennial and annual ryegrass and crimson clover may not be planted for 9 months; barley, and oats for 10 months; and red clover for 15 months after this tank-mix application. There are no restrictions on rotations to wheat, rye, or triticale.

Site of action (diuron) Group 7: photosystem II inhibitor; (chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron) Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family (diuron) substituted urea; (chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron) sulfonylurea

fenoxaprop (several trade names)

Rate 0.08 lb ai/a

Time Apply to winter wheat from emergence to 70 days before harvest. Apply to wild oat from the 2-leaf to 2-tiller stage of growth and to blackgrass from the 2-leaf through advanced tillering stages.

Remarks Blackgrass is very sensitive to fenoxaprop, but thorough coverage is needed to control well-tillered plants. Fenoxaprop will not control Italian ryegrass. See label for tank-mix options with broadleaf herbicides. Wild oat populations have developed resistance to fenoxaprop in some fields in Oregon. Fenoxaprop herbicides have the same mode of action as Achieve Liquid, Discover NG, NextStep NG, Axial XL, Select, Poast, Assure II, and Fusilade, so weed populations resistant to these herbicides may be cross-resistant to fenoxaprop and vice versa.

Caution Cool, wet conditions at application may temporarily yellow and/or stunt the winter wheat.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Aryloxyphenoxypropionate

flucarbazone (Pre-Pare, Everest 2.0 and Sierra)

Rate 0.009 lb ai/a (0.3 oz/a Pre-Pare) and/or 0.014 to 0.027 lb ai/a (0.5 to 1.0 oz/a Everest 2.0 or Sierra)

Time Pre-Pare may be tank mixed with glyphosate to improve burndown control of many grass and broadleaf weed species, and to provide soil residual weed control prior to planting winter wheat. Apply Everest 2.0 or Sierra postemergence to actively growing wild oats and Italian ryegrass that have one leaf to two tillers, and when winter wheat is between one-leaf and the beginning of jointing. An application of Pre-Pare may be followed by an in-crop application of Everest 2.0 or Sierra applied at the lower use rates.

Remarks Use flucarbazone with a nonionic surfactant (0.25%) in 5 to 10 gal/a spray volume. Including a liquid nitrogen or ammonium sulfate fertilizer is also recommended on the labels. See Pre-Pare, Everest 2.0, and Sierra labels for further directions related to using these products in conjunction with one another.

Caution Do not apply Everest 2.0 or Sierra after winter wheat jointing starts. Do not apply Everest 2.0 or Sierra more than once per season; follow tank mixing instructions carefully. Weed control may be reduced, and winter wheat injury increased, when applied during temperature extremes or when soil is saturated. Do not exceed a total of 0.027 lb ai/a of flucarbazone using the combined products per growing season. Consult all labels for crop rotation restrictions.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylaminocarbonyltriazolinone

flucarbazone + fluroxypyr (Raze)

Rate 0.018 lb ai/a flucarbazone + 0.091 lb ae/a fluroxypyr (7.0 oz/a Raze)

Time Apply to winter wheat in the fall or spring from 2-leaf to jointing stage. Apply to wild oat and Italian ryegrass with one to four leaves prior to tillering.

Remarks Higher rates (up to 9 oz/a) may be used to control Italian ryegrass and certain broadleaf weeds. Lower rates will be required if a preemergence application of Pre-Pare (see entry above) has been made to the field. See Pre-Pare and Raze labels for further directions related to using these products in conjunction with one another. A basic blend adjuvant (0.5-1.0% v/v) is the preferred adjuvant for use with Raze. See Raze label for further tank mixing instructions and crop rotation restrictions.

Caution Apply Raze only once per season. Do not tank mix with products containing additional fluroxypyr. Pre-harvest interval for grain is 60 days.

Site of action (flucarbazone) Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor; (fluroxypyr) Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family (flucarbazone) sulfonylaminocarbonyltriazolinone; (fluroxypyr) pyridine

flufenacet + metribuzin (Axiom DF)

Rate 0.13 to 0.31 lb ai/a flufenacet + 0.034 to 0.087 lb ai/a metribuzin (4 to 10 oz/a Axiom)

Time Apply early postemergence when winter wheat is between spike and 3-leaf growth stage.

Remarks For control and suppression of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in winter wheat. Axiom may be tank mixed with metribuzin, but do not exceed a total of more than the labeled metribuzin rate specified on the specific metribuzin label for soil type and winter wheat stage at application. For sequential applications of Axiom and metribuzin do not exceed a total of 0.5 lb ai/a per year of metribuzin. See label for suggested timing of sequential applications of Axiom and metribuzin based on environmental conditions.

Caution Use lower Axiom rates on coarse soils, and soils with low organic matter and high pH. For best control of weeds emerging with winter wheat crop, plant winter wheat after initial flushes of weeds have been controlled with tillage or a burndown herbicide. Do not graze treated winter wheat for at least 30 days after applying. Do not exceed one application or 10 oz/a of Axiom per year. Do not apply in tank-mixtures with adjuvants. Certain winter wheat varieties are sensitive to Axiom, including "Yamhill". See label for listed varieties sensitive to Axiom. Not all of the available newer winter wheat releases and varieties have been tested for tolerance to Axiom.

Site of action (flufenacet) Group 15: inhibits very long chain fatty acid synthesis; (metribuzin) Group 5: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family (flufenacet) oxyacetamide; (metribuzin) triazine

imazamethabenz (Assert)

Rate 0.38 to 0.47 lb ai/a (1.2 to 1.5 pints/a Assert)

Time Apply from the one- to 4-leaf stage of wild oat. Apply to wheat from the 2-leaf stage up to jointing.

Remarks For control of wild oat, roughstalk bluegrass, and certain broadleaf weeds in winter wheat. Use 80% ai nonionic surfactant at 2 pints/100 gal. If wild oat exceeds 25 plants/sq ft, use a minimum spray volume of 15 gal/a by ground. Allow at least 2 days of above-freezing temperatures before and after applying, otherwise weed control may be reduced. Assert will not control Italian ryegrass.

Caution See label for tank mixing instructions and crop rotation restrictions. Do not tank mix with phosphorous fertilizers. Do not tank mix with dicamba, MCPA amine, or 2,4-D amine. Do not plant crops other than wheat, barley, corn, soybean, safflower, edible beans, or sunflowers for 15 months, or sugar beets for 20 months after application. Do not graze treated wheat or cut treated wheat for forage.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Imidazolinone

linuron (Linex)

Rate 1.0 to 1.75 lb ai/a. Make a single application of Linex 4L at 2 to 3.5 pints/a

Time Apply as soon as possible after planting winter wheat. If winter wheat and weeds have emerged, apply before weeds are 3 inches tall. Note that application to actively growing plants may result in temporary crop chlorosis. Do not apply to winter wheat in the boot stage of maturity or when daily temperatures exceed 60°F, or crop may be injured.

Remarks When using Linex, plant winter wheat seed at least 1 inch deep. When planting in very dry conditions, use Linex only after rain or irrigation settles the soil.

Caution Crop may be injured if severe winter stress, disease, or insect damage follows application or from failure to observe correct winter wheat planting depth. Do not use Linex with other pesticides (except those listed in label), surfactants, or nitrogen solutions after winter wheat emerges. See label for crop rotation restrictions; any crop registered for the rate of Linex that was applied may be replanted immediately. Do not plant any other crop until 12 months after the last Linex application.

Site of action Group 7: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Substituted urea

mesosulfuron-methyl (Osprey)

Rate 0.009 to 0.0134 lb ai/a (3.2 to 4.75 oz/a Osprey)

Time Fall or spring: Apply specified dosage per acre as a postemergence broadcast spray to young, actively growing weeds (one-leaf to two-tiller growth stage). Apply from crop emergence to the winter wheat jointing stage.

Remarks For Italian ryegrass, use 4.75 oz/a Osprey. Use the 3.2 oz/a Osprey rate for wild oat control if wild oat is the only target weed. A nonionic surfactant (0.5% v/v) with ammonium nitrogen (1 to 2 quarts/a) or ammonium sulfate (1.5 to 3 lb/a) fertilizer must be tank mixed with Osprey. Do not exceed one application or 4.75 oz/a Osprey per winter wheat season.

Caution Crop may be injured if frost occurs shortly after application to actively growing wheat. Consult label for broadleaf tank-mix options with Osprey and additional cautions.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

metribuzin (several trade names)

Rate 0.094 to 0.5 lb ai/a

Time Apply 0.094 to 0.187 lb ai/a in fall after winter wheat has at least two leaves. Apply 0.314 to 0.5 lb ai/a in spring when winter wheat has more than four tillers and secondary roots are more than 1 inch long.

Remarks Most effective if applied before weedy grasses exceed the 2-leaf stage; therefore, lower rates in fall usually are more effective than higher rates in spring. If applying metribuzin sequentially, allow at least 45 days between applications. Adding a nonionic surfactant with the fall application usually improves control. To control severe grass infestations see entry for triallate + metribuzin + chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron below. Metribuzin applied at 0.28 lb ai/a controls speedwell species.

Caution Some winter wheat varieties are sensitive to metribuzin. Do not apply on "Yamhill" wheat. See label for maximum application rate on different soil types. Do not exceed 0.5 lb ai/a per year.

Site of action Group 5: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family Thiazine

pendimethalin (Prowl H20)

Rate 0.71 to 1.42 lb ai/a (1.5 to 3 pints/a Prowl H20)

Time Apply postemergence when winter wheat is at least 1-leaf through flag leaf emergence, but prior to weed emergence. Prowl H2O will not control emerged weeds, but may be useful to suppress additional weed flushes or late emerging weed species.

Remarks Controls and suppresses annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in winter wheat. May be tank mixed with other postemergence herbicides labeled in wheat to control established weeds and to broaden the weed control spectrum. Refer to label for approved tank-mix options.

Caution Application rate is dependent on soil type. Use lower rates on coarse-textured soils and higher rates on medium- to fine-texture soils.

Site of action Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

pinoxaden (Axial XL)

Rate 0.054 lb ai/a (16.4 oz/a Axial XL)

Time Apply to winter wheat from the 2-leaf to preboot stage. Apply to wild oat with one to six leaves on the main stem, and to Italian ryegrass with one to five leaves on the main stem.

Remarks See label for crop rotation restrictions and labeled broadleaf weed control tank-mix partners.

Caution Apply only once per season. Do not apply to a crop stressed by conditions such as drought, frost, low fertility, or pest damage; crop may be injured.

Site of action Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor

Chemical family Phenylpyrazolin

pinoxaden + fluroxypyr (Axial Star)

Rate 0.054 lb ai/a + 0.132 lb ae/a fluroxypyr (16.4 oz/a Axial Star)

Time Apply to winter wheat from the 2-leaf to preboot stage. Apply to wild oat with one to six leaves on the main stem, and to Italian ryegrass with one to five leaves on the main stem. Broadleaf weeds should have 2 to 4 leaves and be less than 4 inches in height at the time of application.

Remarks See label for crop rotation restrictions and labeled broadleaf weed control and fungicide tank-mix partners. Axial Star may be applied in a carrier that contains up to 50% liquid nitrogen fertilizer.

Caution Apply only once per season. Do not apply to a crop stressed by conditions such as drought, frost, low fertility, or pest damage; crop may be injured. Do not harvest grain for 60 days following application.

Site of action (pinoxaden) Group 1: acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor; (fluroxypyr) Group 4: synthetic auxin

Chemical family (pinoxaden) phenylpyrazolin; (fluroxypyr) pyridine

propoxycarbazone-sodium (Olympus)

Rate 0.027 to 0.04 lb ai/a (0.6 to 0.9 oz/a Olympus)

Time Fall or spring: apply specified dosage per acre as a postemergence broadcast spray to actively growing wild oat and annual brome grasses in 2-leaf to two-tiller stage. Fall and spring: apply 0.6 to 0.9 oz/a Olympus in fall and then 0.3 to 0.6 oz/a Olympus in spring as a postemergence broadcast spray. Apply from crop emergence to before jointing begins. Olympus may also be applied at 0.6 oz/a with glyphosate in the fall as a preplant/pre-emergence burndown treatment in winter wheat.

Remarks Use with nonionic surfactant (0.25% to 0.5% v/v). Do not exceed 1.2 oz/a Olympus per crop year. Fall applications may not control spring-germinating weeds. Olympus will not control Italian ryegrass.

Caution See label for broadleaf tank-mix options with Olympus and additional cautions.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylaminocarbonyltriazolinone

pyroxasulfone (Zidua)

Rate 0.053 to 0.092 lb ai/a (1.0 to 1.75 oz/a Zidua) preplant surface or preemergence; 0.037 to 0.106 lb ai/a (0.7 to 2.0 oz/a Zidua) delayed preemergence; 0.074 to 0.133 lb ai/a (1.0 to 2.5 oz/a Zidua) early postemergence

Time Zidua may be applied preplant surface, preemergence, delayed preemergence or early postemergence. For the delayed preemergence application, apply when 80% of germinated wheat seeds have 0.5-inch-long shoots up to fourth tiller for the early postemergence applications. See main Zidua label and supplemental labels for specific information on application timing, soil type, and rate information.

Remarks Wheat must be planted at least 1 inch deep to avoid injury. Wheat should not be planted more than 1.5 inches deep before a preemergence or delayed preemergence application. Zidua will not control germinated or emerged weeds. Zidua may be applied as a single treatment or sequential treatments and may be applied with other labeled herbicides. For herbicide resistance management, particularly for Italian ryegrass, apply a fall or spring postemergence grass herbicide such as Axial XL or PowerFlex HL.

Caution Do not exceed a total of 2.5 oz/a of Zidua per season. Do not apply to Durum wheat. Do not apply preplant or preemergence to broadcast-seeded wheat. Wheat for age may be fed or grazed 7 days following application.

Site of action Group 15: inhibits very-long-chain fatty acid synthesis

Chemical family isoxazoline

pyroxasulfone + carfentrazone (Anthem Flex)

Rate 0.063 to 0.141 lb ai/a (2.0 to 4.5 oz/a Anthem Flex)

Time Apply 30 days preplant through fourth tiller. See label for application timing, soil type, and rate information.

Remarks For Italian ryegrass control, apply preplant through preemergence only to soils with a CEC greater than 15, pH less than 7.5, and organic matter greater than 2%. If soils do not meet these requirements, Anthem Flex must be applied as a delayed preemergence or postemergence treatment. Results are best when applied prior to weed emergence. Wheat must be planted a minimum of 1 inch deep. Anthem Flex may be applied as a single treatment or as sequential treatments and may be applied with other labeled herbicides. For herbicide resistance management, particularly for Italian ryegrass, apply a fall or spring postemergence grass herbicide such as Axial XL or PowerFlex HL.

Caution Do not exceed a total of 4.5 oz of Anthem Flex per season. Do not apply to Durum wheat. See label for rotational restrictions. Do not make postemergence applications to foliage that is wet from dew, rain, or irrigation, as increased wheat leaf speckling may occur.

Site of action (pyroxasulfone) Group 15: inhibits very-long-chain fatty acid synthesis; (carfentrazone) Group 14: protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor

Chemical family (pyroxasulfone) isoxazoline; (carfentrazone) triazolinone

pyroxsulam (PowerFlex HL)

Rate 0.016 lb ai/a (2 oz/a PowerFlex HL)

Time Apply in either fall or spring, to actively growing winter wheat from 3-leaf to jointing stage, after most weeds have emerged. PowerFlex HL will control or suppress Italian ryegrass, downy brome, and cheat, and has good broadleaf activity.

Remarks A nonionic surfactant (0.25% to 0.5% v/v) with ammonium sulfate (1.5 lb/a) fertilizer must be tank mixed with PowerFlex HL for maximum efficacy. Do not exceed one application of PowerFlex HL per winter wheat season. Do not make split applications. When applying with fluid fertilizer as a carrier, spray solution should not be composed of more than 50% liquid nitrogen and should not exceed 30 lb of actual nitrogen per acre.

Caution For winter wheat only. Do not tank mix with products containing dicamba or amine formulations of 2,4-D or MCP or organophosphate insecticides. Crop rotation restriction is 10 months for field and sweet corn, grasses, alfalfa and canola.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Triazolopyrimidine sulfonamide

pyroxsulam + fluroxypyr + florasulam (GoldSky)

Rate 0.013 lb ai/a pyroxsulam + 0.088 lb ae/a fluroxypyr + 0.015 lb ai/a florasulam (1 pint/a GoldSky)

Time Apply in the spring to actively growing winter wheat from 3-leaf to jointing stage and after most weeds have emerged.

Remarks GoldSky will control or suppress Italian ryegrass, downy brome, and cheat, and has good broadleaf activity. A nonionic surfactant (0.25% to 0.5% v/v) with ammonium sulfate (1.5 lb/a) fertilizer should be tank mixed with GoldSky for maximum efficacy when it is applied alone. When GoldSky is applied with EC formulations, such as 2,4-D ester or MCPA ester products, do not include an adjuvant.

Caution Do not apply more than 1 pint/a of GoldSky per year. Do not harvest winter wheat within 60 days of application. Do not graze within 7 days of application or harvest wheat as hay within 28 days of application.

Site of action (pyroxsulam) Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor; (fluroxypyr) Group 4: synthetic auxin; (florasulam) Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family (pyroxsulam) triazolopyrimidine sulfonamide; (fluroxypyr) pyridine; (florasulam) triazolopyrimidine

sulfosulfuron (Maverick)

Rate 0.031 lb ai/a sulfosulfuron (0.67 oz/a Maverick)

Time Apply only once, at the maximum rate of 0.67 oz/a, per season. Apply after wheat emerges but before jointing. Apply to weeds postemergence, when soil moisture is adequate for active growth. For best control of brome species, apply at the two- to 3-leaf growth stage.

Remarks Maverick's strong point is downy brome control, found mostly east of the Cascades, but it is also good on quackgrass and cheatgrass, and fair on Italian ryegrass and wild oat. Bedstraw is among the broadleaf weeds controlled. Use with an 80% ai nonionic surfactant at 2 quarts/100 gal.

Caution Do not plant any crop except spring or winter wheat for 1 year after applying Maverick.

Site of action Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family Sulfonylurea

triallate (several trade names)

Rate 1.25 lb ai/a

Time Apply just before or soon after seeding. Incorporate immediately 2 to 3 inches deep, but above the planted winter wheat seeds, with two harrowings at right angles.

Remarks In a roughly tilled field or one with heavy crop residue, weed control may be reduced due to poor incorporation of the herbicide. Additional herbicide treatments may be necessary for dense infestations of Italian ryegrass or wild oat.

Site of action Group 8: lipid synthesis inhibitor but not an ACCase inhibitor

Chemical family Thiocarbamate

triallate (several trade names) + diuron (several trade names)

Rate 1.25 lb ai/a triallate + 1.2 to 1.6 lb ai/a diuron

Time Apply triallate just before or soon after seeding. Incorporate immediately 2 to 3 inches deep, but above the planted winter wheat seeds, with two harrowings at right angles. Apply diuron pre- or post-emergence after rain settles soil.

Remarks Triallate is safer on winter wheat if applied after planting. Triallate is not effective against broadleaf weeds but is effective on wild oat and Italian ryegrass.

Site of action (triallate) Group 8: lipid synthesis inhibitor but not an ACCase inhibitor; (diuron) Group 7: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family (triallate) thiocarbamate; (diuron) substituted urea

triallate (several trade names) + metribuzin (several trade names)

Rate 1.25 lb ai/a triallate + 0.094 to 0.5 lb ai/a metribuzin

Time Triallate is safer on wheat if applied after planting. Apply triallate just before or soon after seeding, and incorporate immediately 2 to 3 inches deep, but above wheat seed, with two harrowings at right angles. See above for rates and timings of metribuzin.

Remarks Triallate is ineffective against broadleaf weeds. Treatment will provide fair to good control of Italian ryegrass, wild oat, and annual bromes. Metribuzin will also control many broadleaf weeds.

Site of action (triallate) Group 8: lipid synthesis inhibitor but not an ACCase inhibitor; (metribuzin) Group 5: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family (triallate) thiocarbamate; (metribuzin) triazine

triallate (several trade names) + metribuzin (several trade names) + chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron (several trade names)

Rate 1.25 lb ai/a triallate + 0.141 lb ai/a metribuzin + 0.018 lb ai/a chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron

Time Apply triallate just before or soon after seeding, and incorporate immediately 2 to 3 inches deep, but above planted winter wheat seed, with two harrowings at right angles. Apply metribuzin + chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron when winter wheat is in the 2-leaf stage. This application is most effective before grass weeds exceed the 2-leaf stage.

Remarks Recommended for fields heavily infested with annual bromes and/or Italian ryegrass with suspected diclofop or diuron resistance. Adding an 80% ai nonionic surfactant improves control. Also gives fair to good control of wild oat.

Caution Observe the same use precautions given above for metribuzin and chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron alone.

Site of action (triallate) Group 8: lipid synthesis inhibitor but not an ACCase inhibitor; (metribuzin) Group 5: photosystem II inhibitor; (chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron) Group 2: acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor

Chemical family (triallate) thiocarbamate; (metribuzin) triazine; (chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron) sulfonylurea

trifluralin (several trade names)

Rate 0.5 to 1.0 lb ai/a

Time Trifluralin can be applied as a preplant incorporated treatment up to 3 weeks before planting winter wheat, or as a postplant incorporated treatment immediately following winter wheat planting.

Remarks For grass and broadleaf control. Trifluralin will not control established weed seedlings. Incorporate trifluralin with two harrowings at right angles following applications. Rate depends on soil type and the application timing used.

Caution Selectivity of trifluralin depends on the placement relative to planted winter wheat seed. Crop may be severely injured if winter wheat seed is planted into herbicide-treated soil. Do not replant treated areas to annual or perennial grass seed crops within 1 year of application; see individual labels for more specific instructions on limiting injury to rotational crops.

Site of action Group 3: Microtubule assembly inhibitor

Chemical family Dinitroaniline

trifluralin (several trade names) + diuron (several trade names)

Rate 0.75 lb ai/a trifluralin + 1.2 to 1.6 lb ai/a diuron

Time Apply trifluralin after planting but before wheat germinates. Immediately incorporate trifluralin above the planted winter wheat seeds with two harrowings at right angles. Apply diuron pre- or post-emergence after rain settles soil.

Remarks Use lower diuron rate if Italian ryegrass escapes are fewer than five plants/sq ft. Higher rates may injure crop, but this may be offset by better weed control when the weed population is high. This treatment gives fair control of annual bromes but poor control of wild oat.

Caution Selectivity of trifluralin and diuron depends on their placement relative to winter wheat seed. Crop may be severely injured if winter wheat seed is in herbicide treated soil. Do not replant treated areas to any other crop within 1 year of application.

Site of action (trifluralin) Group 3: microtubule assembly inhibitor; (diuron) Group 7: photosystem II inhibitor

Chemical family (trifluralin) dinitroaniline; (diuron) substituted urea